Child Abuse and Culture

Self-Study Examination

Instructions: After studying the text answer the following true/false or multiple choice questions.  Remember, there's only one answer to each question.

1. The outermost circle of the ecosystemic framework is:

a) genetic make up
b) the child’s home and family
c) ethnic culture
d) wider social systems

2. Ethnic cultures are not static.

a) true
b) false

3. A child that refuses to make eye contact or retreats from touch may:

a) be suffering from abuse
b) have Asperger syndrome
c) have sickle-cell anemia
d) be removed from the family

4. Using simple, general labels about a group of people to draw unwarranted conclusions about individuals from that group is called:

a) bias
b) prejudice
c) stereotype
d) label

5. Purcell-Gates (2002) states, “the language one speaks is the clearest and most stable marker of _________ _________.

a) class membership
b) formal education
c) prejudicial background
d) racial indifference

6. Child neglect, according to Charlow, 2001-2002, stated:

a) the U.S. suffers from “collective neglect”
b) unmet needs should be the focus
c) children are more likely to be removed from the home when African American 'children are involved
d) it is mainly concentrated in the lowest socioeconomic groups

7. Child maltreatment encompasses both child abuse and neglect.

a) true
b) false

8. An example of “fictive kin” is:

a) a mother’s boyfriend who is called “daddy”
b) “aunts” and “uncles” who live with the family but not related by blood or marriage
c) a person called “cousin” because he or she comes from the same tribe
d) an older female friend called “auntie”

9. In most families it will be helpful to honor the hierarchy by first greeting:

a) the oldest professional
b) the elder statesman
c) the oldest male child
d) an older member of the family

10. An example of “ethnic lumping” according to the author would be:

a) An example of “ethnic lumping” according to the author would be:
b) classifying Chinese Americans as Oriental
c) classifying Japanese and Pakistani Americans as “Asian Americans”
d) considering Native Americans as Pacific Islanders

11. _________ _________ may complicate efforts to obtain an accurate assessment of parenting.

a) Culture shock
b) Addressing clients
c) Suspicious questions
d) English only

12. An example of a collectivist culture would be:
  1. Canada
  2. Southern Europe
  3. Latin America
  4. Africa

a) 3 and 4
b) all but 1
c) all but 3
d) 4 only

13. An example of a neglect issue that an immigrant may face is:

a) not enrolling a child in school
b) failure to have a child immunized
c) missing three parent-teacher conferences
d) leaving a child alone in a car for a brief period

14. In Central America, parents give children potions of mercury to:

a) cure lethargy, diarrhea, and nausea
b) cure skin infections
c) to clean rooms of the “evil eye”
d) relieve colic and teething pain

15. In marriage by capture, a man kidnaps a young woman and holds her for 3 days, then:

a) contacts the young woman’s parents
b) arranges to legitimize the marriage
c) he may be charged with kidnapping and rape if she is below the age of legal consent
d) he abandons her, having ruined her reputation

16. These are people who have been given permission to live indefinitely in the United States, is the definition of a(n):

a) refugee
b) naturalized citizen
c) nonimmigrant
d) immigrant

17. When the professional is talking with an immigrant family, many dates and stories do not match. The professional should:

a) state, “The dates and times do not add up. You need to be honest.”
b) state, “You need to tell the truth or you will be deported.”
c) ask for the truth about things that matter
d) say, “The truth will make you free.”

18. Professionals should avoid rushing immigrant clients which is so characteristic of Western society because it :

a) is interpreted as a lack of caring and respect
b) shows the professional has a heavy load
c) confuses the immigrant citizen
d) communicates that time cannot be wasted

19. The executive order, signed by President Clinton on August 11, 2000 stated all agencies receiving federal assistance must provide services to people with:

a) wheelchairs
b) disability parking permits
c) limited English proficiency
d) hearing loss

20. One significant question to consider when assessing an at risk child is, “Can safety be achieved through support rather than placement?”

a) true
b) false

21. Mandated reporters appear to be more likely to suspect and report child abuse if the child is from a:
  1. poor family
  2. black family
  3. Native American family
  4. White family

a) 1 and 4
b) 2 only
c) 2 and 3
d) all but 4

22. By definition, child abuse includes:

a) sleeping in a room alone
b) harm, injury, or impairment or risk of these problems
c) physical abuse that “leaves a mark” for 1 hour
d) “failure to thrive”

23. An example of a disciplinary practice among some Asian and Latino groups is:

a) coining
b) forcing a child to kneel on uncooked rice
c) moxibustion
d) inducing vomiting

24. Reasons an umbilical cord should have substances applied is to:
  1. prevent infection
  2. keep bad spirits away
  3. prevent bleeding from the stump
  4. promote drying and separation from the baby

a) 4 only
b) all but 2
c) 1 and 3
d) all but 1

25. This component of structured decision making includes an estimate for the risk of future abuse or neglect:

a) risk assessment
b) safety assessment
c) family needs
d) response priority

26. Which of the following would complicate matters when interviewing a child about possible maltreatment:
  1. limited language ability
  2. intimidation of the process
  3. peer pressure not to talk
  4. threats to keep a secret

a) 1 only
b) 2 and 4
c) all but 3
d) all but 1

27. Gathering racial information about the child is not enough, since culture is not defined by skin color.

a) true
b) false

28. Which of the following are reasons to tell children in an appropriate way about the investigation process:
  1. the child has a right to refuse
  2. the child may feel misled by the investigation if images are recorded
  3. the child may request a

a) all but 3
b) 1 and 2
c) all but 4
d) 2 and 3

29. One way professionals gain trust with families is to:

a) meet in a neutral place
b) spend time explaining the investigation process
c) read the rights to those involved
d) explain their role carefully as well as credentials and experience

30. During questioning, the interviewer’s first purpose is to:

a) allow the child to refuse to participate
b) acknowledge taboos
c) encourage the child to talk
d) be alert for sensitive issues

31. Instruments used for physical abuse vary by culture. African American children are more likely to be struck with which of the following:

a) board, stick
b) open hand, strap
c) belt, switch, stick
d) paddle, stick, open hand

32. Some bilingual children may begin the interview in English, but as they enter moreemotionally laden content they:

a) respond in the native language without realizing it
b) need a clear plan on how to proceed
c) can request an interpreter
d) want to use drawings or dolls

33. The most important attribute for an interviewer in a cross-cultural encounter is:

a) to use nonverbal cues
b) a friendly and open attitude
c) sitting close to the child
d) to be comfortable with silence

34. According to Connelly and Straus, 1992, White children were _________ likely to be abused by a biological parent than non-White children.

a) more
b) less

35. The use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain, but not injury, for the purpose of correction or control of the child’s behavior is the definition of:

a) punishment
b) physical abuse
c) corporal punishment
d) discipline

36. According to Straus and Donnelly (2001), any attack on a child that results in injury is:

a) punishment
b) physical abuse
c) corporal punishment
d) discipline

37. The fundamentalist Christians may do which of the following to punish a child:

a) lock them in a “prayer” closet
b) “wash out” their mouth with soap
c) hold matching Bibles in his or her hands with outstretched arms
d) administer a thrashing with “the Doctor”

38. Which of the following are acceptable ways of gently punishing a child and eliminating physical abuse:
  1. “time out” in an empty room
  2. one strike with an open hand on a clothed bottom
  3. no spanking when angry
  4. removing a favorite a

a) 1 and 2
b) all but 4
c) 4 only
d) 2 and 3

39. Children who receive corporal punishment at home are _______ likely to be aggressive with their classmates.

a) more
b) less

40. Making sure the child is well rested and fed is an example of which alternative system of parenting (Howard, 1996):

a) promotion of the parent-child relationship
b) avoiding conflict
c) reinforcing positive behavior
d) decreasing undesired behaviors

41. Shame is defined as no claim to worth, inside himself or herself, but lack of worth in others’ eyes.

a) true
b) false

42. This component of shame is common to most victims of sexual abuse, regardless of their cultural or ethnic background:

a) they “asked for it”
b) a self image of being a “bad” person
c) never being loved
d) the sense of being permanently damaged

43. Which culture would emphasize individual control and responsibility:

a) Latino and Arabic
b) Muslims and Cambodians
c) U.S. and Canadians
d) Guatemalan and Black Americans

44. Boys who have been sexually abused by men will become homosexuals as adults.

a) true
b) false

45. Which of the following factors put girls and women at risk for further sexual assult following sexual abuse in childhood:
  1. failure to accept help from professionals
  2. continued exposure to the factors that put her at risk initially
  3. les

a) 1 and 4
b) all but 3
c) all but 1
d) 2 and 4

46. High-quality interpretation:

a) allows for obtaining information to protect children and win convictions in court
b) is difficult to obtain and costly
c) can leave children and families more confused and frustrated
d) must be available for all professional encounters related to child abuse and neglect, according to Federal laws

47. It is an acceptable practice for children to interpret for other children or adults.

a) true
b) false

48. During an interview, the trained interpreter will ask for a moment to inform the interviewer of the client’s speech irregularity that may not be clear. This is called a(n):

a) pause
b) recess
c) conference
d) aside

49. In general, during an interview, the interpreter _________ seek out eye contact with the client.

a) should
b) should not

50. In this type of interpreting, only one person speaks at a time:

a) simultaneous interpreting
b) consecutive interpreting

51. Prevention programs:

a) are poorly funded and often the first to be cut when budgets are tight
b) often target only special needs people
c) do not exist in poor and rural communities
d) lack effectiveness in culturally diverse areas

52. In this type of prevention, public service announcements, parent education programs, support groups that focus on child development and public awareness campaigns are included:

a) primary prevention
b) secondary prevention
c) tertiary prevention

53. Most child sexual abuse prevention programs occur in:

a) colleges
b) schools
c) clinics
d) support groups

54. A public service announcement on a Spanish language television station is:

a) culturally open
b) culturally specific

55. One of the most effective ways to reduce abuse among those at the bottom of the social ladder is to:

a) provide parenting classes
b) teach “Good Touch/Bad Touch” in school
c) address the stresses of poverty
d) Develop “STOP IT NOW,” a sexual abuse prevention program

56. Parenting classes may not be the best referral if a parent has severe mental health challenges, or is an active substance abuser because:
  1. they may need treatment for substance abuse
  2. parenting opportunities are too difficult at this time

a) all but 3
b) all but 2
c) 3 only
d) 1 and 4

57. In this organization, diversity is an asset.

a) monocultural organization
b) nondiscriminatory organization
c) multicultural organization

58. Using census data, school enrollment data, and other sources of information will help agencies meet needs of communities and plan services needed. This is a recommendation of:

a) The Child Welfare League of America
b) The Office of Minority Health
c) The Child Welfare System
d) The Immigrant Family Project