Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Self-Study Examination

Instructions: After studying the text answer the following true/false or multiple choice questions.  Remember, there's only one answer to each question.

1. The first step in dealing with trauma is to:

a) seek medical attention
b) recognize its impact
c) share your feelings with others
d) maintain a sense of humor

2. The phenomenon of disassociation is best defined as a feeling of numbness, as if you’ve left your body.

a) True
b) False

3. All of the following are types of factors that influence the development of PTSD except:

a) preevent factors
b) trauma factors
c) event factors
d) postevent factors

4. The recognition that even seriously traumatic events are understandable, manageable, and meaningful is the definition of:

a) locus of control
b) self-efficacy
c) strength
d) a sense of coherence

5. Stress that is positive is called eustress.

a) True
b) False

6. A disorientated perception and feeling as if “being in two places” is the definition of:

a) displacement
b) detachment
c) depersonalization
d) derealization

7. If a person has symptoms of PTSD that have lasted three months or more, it is best defined as:

a) acute
b) chronic
c) delayed onset
d) partial onset

8. All of the following are examples of somatization except:

a) digestive system problems
b) chronic pain
c) cardiopulmonary symptoms
d) guilt, shame and feeling ineffective

9. Learning about memories, trauma and the impact of traumatic events is called:

a) psychoeducation
b) pseudoeducation
c) reconstruction
d) conditioning

10. Staying present in current time is the definition of :

a) association
b) safety
c) grounded
d) orientation

11. You are able to identify how you feel in situations and recognize what your intuition tells you is the definition of:

a) physical safety
b) emotional safety
c) mental safety
d) spiritual safety

12. You score a “10” on the Subjective Units of Distress Scale. This indicates you are:

a) very relaxed
b) asleep
c) in moderate distress
d) in extreme distress

13. An example of a metaphor after being date raped would be:

a) “I hope they arrest him.”
b) “I am a sack of dirty laundry.”
c) “I can’t remember what happened.”
d) “I’d like to kill him.”

14. A full-blown reliving of the trauma in real time is the definition of:

a) an abreaction
b) intrusive reactions
c) a flashback
d) dual awareness

15. According to the work of Matsakis, hyperarousal of the _____________ gland, leads to intrusive symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.

a) pituitary
b) adrenal
c) sweat
d) sebaceous

16. Containment is best defined as:

a) having feelings of helplessness
b) identifying a trigger
c) using your mind to focus on something other than a traumatic memory, flashback or thought
d) having hypervigilance during a flashback

17. To normalize your body so you can return to some level of calm and order is:

a) protection
b) reaction
c) numbing
d) homeostasis

18. The total numbing that comes from extreme stress is___________.

a) hyperarousal
b) shutdown
c) emotion
d) anger

19. Which of the following defines rage:

a) anger and helplessness
b) trauma and awareness
c) anger and fear
d) pain and hurt

20. Affirmations are a positive form of self-talk that can state how you want to see yourself and your body.

a) True
b) False

21. Guilt is never a positive emotion.

a) True
b) False

22. An example of an introject, stated by a perpetrator, would be:

a) “Don’t tell anyone about this.”
b) “Just relax.”
c) “You liked what happened to you.”
d) “You’re going to be okay.”

23. Loss leads to :

a) anger
b) grief
c) rebellion
d) acceptance

24. A structured activity such as a picture or song to help honor the person who died as a(n):

a) farewell
b) funeral
c) emotional release
d) healing ritual

25. In an abusive situation, a victim learned it was useless to try to get away. This is defined as:

a) learned helplessness
b) traumatic bonding
c) massive denial
d) self-deprivation

26. The most common form of self mutilation is:

a) starvation
b) head-banging
c) self-cutting
d) purging to physical pain

27. All of the following are true about an emotional boundary except you can:

a) refuse to be sexual without fear
b) be worry-free when asking about being hurt
c) withdraw and be passive
d) set limits without worry whether or not you will hurt the other person

28. The most familiar kind of dissociation is:

a) physical separation
b) amnesia
c) a flat affect
d) partial repression

29. Levine’s SIBAM model of dissociation lists five elements of any experience.


30. Which of the following are conversion symptoms:
  1. digestive symptoms
  2. chronic pain
  3. cardiopulmonary symptoms
  4. sexual symptoms

a) all the above
b) all but 2
c) all but 4
d) 2 and 4

31. Emotional learning occurs with part of the brain called the _________ and the__________ is responsible for thoughts associated with those emotions.

a) brain stem, medulla
b) pons, cerebrum
c) amygdale, hippocampus
d) cerebellum, cranium

32. Your beliefs and expectations about yourself, others and your world is the definition of:

a) ideas
b) schemas
c) culture
d) priorities

33. Which of the following are psychological needs that motivate behavior (McCann, Pearlman 1990)?

a) self esteem, love, belonging, acceptance, self-actualization
b) value, worth, love, hope, safety
c) love, trust, faith, power, belonging
d) safety, trust, power, esteem, intimacy

34. Forgiveness is the willful abandonment of resentment and the willingness to respond toward your perpetrator with compassion, generosity, beneficence, and moral love (Enright, Fitzgibbons, 2002).

a) True
b) False

35. All of the following are ways to forgive except:

a) verbally
b) emotionally
c) cognitively
d) spiritually

36. The three main aspects that the impact of trauma has on interpersonal relationships are all of the following except:

a) inability to trust
b) inability to forgive
c) revictimizing yourself
d) victimizing others

37. _________ is the capacity to feel connected to yourself and others.

a) Love
b) Trust
c) Intimacy
d) Comfort

38. Matsakis states the single most important predictor of who develops long-term PTSD or other traumatic reactions is the ability to:

a) receive support from a therapist
b) derive comfort from another human being
c) obtain acceptance from a spiritual leader
d) give unconditional love

39. Your ___________ boundaries encompass your needs for and rights to internal safety.

a) physical
b) emotional
c) personal
d) psychological

40. The first item of the “Relationship Contract” is:

a) you will forgive each other
b) it can be easily voided by either party
c) you each want the relationship to succeed
d) each party will maintain an open dialogue

41. The purpose of paraphrasing is to:
  1. know what he or she means
  2. show you are interested in what is said
  3. obtain clarity in what you have heard
  4. receive feedback

a) all the above
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 4
d) all but 4

42. An example of a “probing question” is:

a) “Can you describe what happened?”
b) “Are you happier than you’ve ever been?”
c) “Was it wrong for him to do that?”
d) “What are your reasons for saying that?”

43. Black humor is best defined as humor that has racial and ethnic overtones.

a) True
b) False

44. An “I” message is specific and nonjudgmental and focuses on the ___________.

a) listener
b) speaker
c) subject
d) group

45. _________ talk is used to lead or direct, _________ talk is when you defend yourself against another, and ___________ talk is used to make someone feel guilty.

a) Control, fight, spite
b) Shop, spite, fight
c) Small, fight, control
d) Fight, control, spite

46. __________talk is used to get insight and look for opinions or causes.

a) Straight
b) Shop
c) Search
d) Small

47. One of the benchmark symptoms of PTSD and complex PTSD is the belief:

a) you will always be lonely
b) there is inner turmoil
c) you can never be successful
d) in a foreshortened future

48. The three attitudes that help you have hope are:

a) patience, courage and persistence
b) power, self-management and healing
c) humor, spiritual development, and compassion
d) love, understanding and humiliation

49. _________ is defined as personal beliefs that life is comprehensible, manageable, meaningful, structured and predictable.

a) Connection
b) Coherence
c) Hardiness
d) Purpose

50. Salutogenesis:
  1. lists thirteen “C’s”
  2. was developed in 1997
  3. is a wellness model for retaining control through traumatic events
  4. focused on finding meaning and benefits in what has happened to you

a) all the above
b) all but 1
c) 3 and 4
d) all but 3